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انجام پروژه های مهندسی برق - آشنایی با فیلتر دیجیتال
آشنایی با فیلتر دیجیتال
سه شنبه 3 بهمن 1391 ساعت 06:52 ب.ظ | نوشته ‌شده به دست رسول نیک بخت | ( نظرات )
فیلترهای دیجیتال از نظر كاركرد شبیه فیلترهای آنالوگ هستن.یعنی بخشی از سیگنال ورودی را فیلتر می كنند.مشكل عمده فیلترهای آنالوگ پایین بودن دقت ان است واینكه هرچه فركانس شما بالاتر میره طراحی این فیلتر فوق العاده دشوار تر وپیچیده تر میشه.در فیلترهای دیجیتال این مشكل وجود نداره و شما به كمك تعریف توابع ریاضی گسسته دقیق می تونید یك فیلتر خوب در محدوده فركانس های بالا ایجاد كنید كه همچنین باعث افزایش سرعت ارسال داده و فیلترینگ و كاهش چشم گیر حجم مدار میشن.در پروژه های مخابراتی كه نیاز به دقت بالا وجود داره مثلا رادار..بیشتر از این نوع فیلتر استفاده میشه.فیلتر دیجیتال 2 مدل داره یكی FIR و دیگری IIR .شاید این سوال برای شما مطرح بشه كه چطور میشه این فیلتر رو ایجاد كرد؟ و سیستم كلی كار اون به چه صورته؟

سیستم كلی كار اون به صورت مراحل زیره
1)ابتدا سیگنال آنالوگ باید توسط یك مبدل آنالوگ به دیجیتال به داده های دیجیتال تبدیل بشه
2)داده های دیجیتال كه در مرحله قبلی ایجاد شدن وارد یك پردازنده میشن.كه توی این پردازنده به كمك توابع ریاضی فیلتر گسسته یا دیجیتال ایجاد شده و در این پردازنده روی این داده ها پردازش dsp انجام میشه مثلا اگر فیلتر شما پایین گذر با فركانس 5hz باشه فركانس های بالاتر از 5 كیلو را فیلتر میكنه
3) داده های پردازش شده كه شامل كدهای دیجیتال هستند وارد مبدل دیجیتال به آنالوگ میشه و دوباره تبدیل به سیگنال آنالوگ میشه و شما می تونید ببینید كه سیگنال اولیه شما فیلتر شده
برای پردازنده هم میتونید از موارد زیر استفاده كنید
از پردازنده های dsp مثل خانواده c2000 شركت TI و از خانواده DSPIC شركت MICROCHIP یا از FPGA ها ..
البته طراحی فیلتر دیجیتال با FPGA بسیار راحتتر و بهتره و دقت فیلتر شما هم بیشتر میشه

 

 منبع :محمد مزرعه

 
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